Plants toxic to horses

Botanical nameSymptomsCommon name
Abrus precatoriusSevere vomiting and diarrhea (sometimes bloody), tremors, high heart rate, fever, shock, and death. Seeds are highly toxic.Buddhist Rosary Bead, Indian Bead, Indian Licorice, Love Bean, Lucky Bean, Prayer Bean, Precatory Bean, Rosary Pea, Seminole Bead, Weather Plant
Achillea millefoliumVomiting, diarrhea, increased urination, dermatitisDog Daisy, Dog Fennel, Milfoil, Yarrow
Acer rubrumRed blood cell damage, darkened membrane around eyes and mouth, weakness, anorexia, central nervous system depression, abdominal discomfort, laminitis, discoloured urine, pregnancy abortion. Death can occur within 18 hours to 7-10 days of poisoning. Wilted leaves are the most toxic.Acer sanguineum, Carolina Maple, Curled Maple, Red Maple, Rufacer Maple, Scarlet Maple, Soft Maple, Swamp Maple
Adenium obesumVomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, irregular hearthbeat, deathDesert Azalea, Desert Rose, Impala Lily, Kudu Lily, Mock Azalea, Sabi Star
Aesculus spp.Severe vomiting and diarrhea, depression or excitement, dilated pupils, convulstions, incoordination, comaBuckeye, Horse Chestnut
Aglaonema modestrumOral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowingChinese Evergreen
Allium ampeloprasumVomiting, anemia, weakness, blood in urine, high heart rate, pantingLeek
Allium cepaVomiting, anemia, weakness, blood in urine, high heart rate, pantingOnion
Allium sativumVomiting, anemia, weakness, blood in urine, high heart rate, pantingGarlic
Alocassia spp.Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowingElephant’s Ear
Ammi majusOral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowingBishop’s Weed, False Queen Anne’s Lace, Greater Ammi
Amsinckia sp.Weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days.Fiddleneck
Anthemis cotulaContact dermititis, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia. Long term exposure can lead to bleeding tendencies.Mayweed, Poison Daisy, Stinking Chamomile
Anthemis nobilisContact dermititis, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia. Long term exposure can lead to bleeding tendencies.Barnyard daisy, Chamomile, Corn Feverfew, Garden Chamomile, Ground-Apple, Manzanilla, Roman Chamomile, True Chamomile, Turkey-weed
Apocynum androsaemifoliumDiarrhea (sometimes bloody), slow heart rate, weakness.Bitter Root, Dogbane Hemp, Indian Hemp
Aralia spinosaSkin irritation, oral irritation, hypersalivation, vomiting, diarrheaAngelica Tree, Devil’s Walking Stick, Hercules’ Club, Prickly Ash, Prickly Elder
Arisaema triphyllumOral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowingBog Onion, Brown Dragon, Devil’s Dear, Dragon Root, Jack-in-the-pulpit, Memory Root, Pepper Turnip, Starch Root, Three-leaved Indian Turnip, Wild Turnip
Arum maculatumOral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowingAdam-and-Eve, Arum, Bobbins, Cuckoo Plant, Lord-and-Ladies, Starch Root, Wake Robin
Arum palestinumOral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowingBlack Calla, Soloman’s Lily, Wild Arum, Wild Calla
Asclepsia sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, weakness, profound depression, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, weak rapid pulse, seizures, kidney or liver failure, respitory paralysis, coma, deathButterfly Weed, Milkweed
Astragalus sp.Once eaten, the animal becomes “addicted” to the plant. Loss of sensory and motor nerve function, central nervous system depression, progressive loss of coordination, inability to eat and drink, excessive excitability when stimulated, fetal death, and birth defects. Toxicity occurs when the animal has consumed more than 30% of its body weight over a period of 6 weeks or more.Loco Weed
Barbarea orthocerasDigestive tract irritationWintercress
Barbarea vulgarisDigestive tract irritationYellowrocket
Berteroa incanaBloody diarrhea, fever, swollen limbs, colic, dehydration, laminitis, premature birth, loss of appetite, and death, Death is usually associated with the consumption of hay containing 30 – 70% of this plant.Hoary Alyssum
Brassica kaber, sp.Digestive tract irritationCalifornia Rape, Charlock, Indian Mustard, Wild Mustard
Brunfelsia sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, seizures, hypersalivation, lethargy, incoordination, coughingBrunfelsia, Fransiscan Rain Tree, Kiss-Me-Quick, Lady-of-the-Night, Paraguayan Jasmine, Yesterday-Today-Tomorrow
Buxus sp.Colic, diarrhea, respitory failure, seizuresBoxwood
Cannabis sativaVomiting, prolonged depression, incoordination, hypersalivation, sleepyness or excitation, dilated pupils, low blood pressure, low body temperature, seizures, coma, and death (rare).Hashish, Indian Hemp, Marijuana
Catharanthus roseusVomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, depression, tremors, seizures, coma, deathCape Periwinkle, Madagascar Periwinkle, Periwinkle, Rose Periwinkle, Running Myrthle, Vinca, Vinca rosea
Celastrus scandensWeakness, convulsions, vomiting, diarrheaAmerican Bittersweet, Climbing Bittersweet, False Bittersweet, Shrubby Bittersweet, Waxwork
Centaurea repensDifficulty swallowing, grinning appearance, head tossing, yawning, open mouth with hanging and lolling tongue, central nervous system depression, loss of interest in food, difficulty breathing (due to food inhalation), submerging head in water (attempting to drink), dehydration, malnutrition. 50 – 200% of the animal’s body weight must be consumed within 60 – 90 days for poisoning.Russian Knapweed
Centaurea solstitialisDifficulty swallowing, grinning appearance, head tossing, yawning, open mouth with hanging and lolling tongue, central nervous system depression, loss of interest in food, difficulty breathing (due to food inhalation), submerging head in water (attempting to drink), dehydration, malnutrition. 50 – 200% of the animal’s body weight must be consumed within 60 – 90 days for poisoning.Barnaby’s Thistle, Yellow Star Thistle
Chenopodium botrysVomiting, anorexia, depressionAmbrosia mexicana, Feather Geranium, Jerusalem Oak
Chrysanthemum sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, incoordination, dermatitisChrysanthemum, Daisy, Mum
Cicuta maculata, sp.Diarrhea, seizures, tremors, extreme abdominal pain, dilated pupils, fever, bloating, respiratory depression, deathCowbane, Poison Parsnip, Water Hemlock
Citrus aurantifoliaVomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity.Lime
Citrus aurantiumVomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity.Bergamot, Bergamot Orange, Citrus bergamia
Citrus limoniaVomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity.Lemon
Citrus mitisVomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity.Calamondin Orange
Citrus paradisiiVomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity.Grapefruit
Citrus sinensisVomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity.Orange
Clematis sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, salivationClematis, Leatherflower, Virgin’s Bower
Clivia minata, sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, convulstions, low blood pressure, tremors, cardiac arrhythmia. Bulbs are the most poisonous.Caffre Lily, Caple Clivia, Clivia Lily, Clivia nobilis, Clivies, Kaffir Lily, Klivia
Colchicum autumnaleOral irritation, bloody vomiting, diarrhea, shock, multi-organ damage, bone marrow suppressionAutumn Crocus, Meadow Saffron
Coleus ampoinicusVomiting (sometimes with blood), diarrhea (sometimes with blood), depression, anorexiaBread and Butter Plant, Coleus, East Indian Thyme, Indian Borage, Maratha, Militini, Spanish Thyme
Conium maculatumCentral nervous system excitation, muscle tremors, incoordination, excessive salivation, frequent bowel movements and urination, abdominal pains, increased respitory rate, weakness progressing to muscular paralysis, and possible death due to respitory paralysis. Toxicity varies based on plant maturity and environmental conditions; Dry plant material non-toxic.California Fern, Deadly Hemlock, Nebraska Fern, Poison Hemlock, Poison Parsley, Spotted Hemlock, Winter Fern
Convallaria majalisVomiting, irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, disorientation, seizures, comaLily of the Valley
Crotalaria albidaWeight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days.Rattlebox
Cycas revoluta, sp.Vomiting (sometimes with blood), bloody diarrhea, dark stools, jaundice, increased thirst, bruising, liver failure, and death. Seeds are the most toxic. Consumption of 1-2 seeds is enough to cause death.Cycads, Fern Palm, Sago Palm
Cynoglossum amabileWeight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days.Hound’s Tongue
Delphinium sp.Constipation, colic, salivation, muscle tremors, stiffness, weakness, recumbency, convulsions, and possible death from cardiac failure and/or respitory paralysis. Horses don’t usually consume enough of the plant for poisoning.Delphinium, Larkspur
Digitalis purpureaVomiting, diarrhea, weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac failure, deathFoxglove
Echium plantagineum, vulgareWeight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days.Patterson’s Curse, Viper’s Bugloss
Eichhornia crassipesVomiting, anorexiaWater Hyacinth
Equisetum arvenseWeight loss, central nervous system disorders, muscle weakness, convulsions, and death. Toxic component accumulates with ingestion over a few days or weeks and breaks down thiamine, an essential nutrient for central nervous system function as well as metabolism function.Common Horsetail, Field Horsetail, Scouring Rush, Western Horsetail
Erigeron speciosusMild vomiting, diarrheaFleabane, Horseweed, Seaside Daisy, Showy Daisy
Eucalyptus spp.Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, depression, weaknessEucalyptus
Euonymus atropurpureaVomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weakness. Large doses can cause heart rhythm abnormalities.Burning Bush, Euonymus occidentalis, European Spindle Tree, Spindle Tree, Wahoo
Eupatorium rugosumIncoordination, muscle weakness, tremors, elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, fluid accumulation, nervous system swelling, profuse sweating, and an inability to swallow. Consumption of 1 to 10% of body weight is enough to cause lethal clinical effectFall Poison, Richweed, Tremetol, White Snakeroot
Fagopyrum spp.Photosensitization developing into dermal inflamation and ulcersBuckwheat
Ficus benjaminaOral irritation, vomiting, salivation, contact dermatitisFig, Indian Rubber Plant, Weeping Fig
Gardenia jasminoidesMild vomiting, mild diarrhea, hivesCape Jasmine, Gardenia
Gladiolus sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, and lethargy. Bulbs (corms) are the most toxic.Gladiola
Haplopappus heterophyllusIncoordination, muscle weakness, tremors, elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, fluid accumulation, nervous system swelling, profuse sweating, and an inability to swallow. Consumption of 1 to 10% of body weight is enough to cause lethal clinical effects.Burrow Weed, Jimmy Weed, Rayless Goldenrod
Hedera helixVomiting, abdominal pain, hypersalivation, and diarrhea. Foliage is more toxic than berries.Branching Ivy, California Ivy, English Ivy, Glacier Ivy, Needlepoint Ivy, Sweetheart Ivy
Helleborus nigerDrooling, abdominal pain, diarrhea, colic, depressionChristmas Rose, Easter Rose, Lenten Rose, Hellebore
Heliotropium sp.Weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days.Heliotrope
Hemerocallis spp.Not toxic to horses. Cows : incoordination, paresis (partial paralysis), blindness, death.Daylily
Heracleum maximumPhotosensitization developing into dermal inflamation and ulcers, ocular toxicityCow Parsnip, Giant Hogweed
Hibiscus syriacusVomiting, diarrhea, nausea, anorexiaHibiscus Shrub, Rose of China, Rose of Sharon
Hosta sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, depressionFunkia, Hosta, Plantain Lily
Hydrangea arborescensVomiting, diarrhea, depression, cyanide intoxication (rare)Hills of Snow, Hortensia, Hydrangea, Seven Bark
Hypericum perforatumChemical sunburn on light and unpigmented skin, dermatitis, itching, skin ulcersGoatweed, Klamath Weed, St-John’s Wort
Hypochaeris radicataStringhalt (exaggerated flexion in back legs, hopping gait)Catsear, Cat’s Ear, False Dandelion, Flatweed
Ilex aquifoliumVomiting, diarrhea, depression. Stems are the most toxic.English Holly, European Holly, Inkberry, Oregon Holly, Winterberry
Ilex opacaVomiting, diarrhea, depression. Stems are the most toxic.American Holly, European Holly, Inkberry, Oregon Holly, Winterberry
Ipomea batatasDiarrhea, and hallucinations. Mold damaged plants may cause respitory distress in livestock.Sweet Potato Vine
Juglans nigraMild to moderate depression, anorexia, fluid build up in legs, laminitis, increased heart and respitory rate, increased body temperature, mild colic. Poisoning usually occurs when it is present in bedding (as little as 5%). Ingestion of nuts and shells can also occur, causing digestive upset.Black Walnut
Kalmia augustifoliaAcute digestive upset, excessive drooling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, colic, depression, weakness, loss of coordination, stupor, leg paralysis, weak heart rate, and recumbancy (leaning). Interferes with normal muscle and nerve functions. Animal may recover or may become comatose and die. Also toxic to sheep and goats.Lambkill, Sheep Laurel
Kalmia latifoliaAcute digestive upset, excessive drooling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, colic, depression, weakness, loss of coordination, stupor, leg paralysis, weak heart rate, and recumbancy (leaning). Interferes with normal muscle and nerve functions. Animal may recover or may become comatose and die. Also toxic to sheep and goats.Mountain Laurel
Kalmia poliifoliaAcute digestive upset, excessive drooling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, colic, depression, weakness, loss of coordination, stupor, leg paralysis, weak heart rate, and recumbancy (leaning). Interferes with normal muscle and nerve functions. Animal may recover or may become comatose and die. Also toxic to sheep and goats.Bog Kalmia, Bog Laurel, Pale Laurel
Lantana camaraToxic to livestock. Vomiting, diarrhea, labored breathing, weakness, liver failureLantana, Red Sage, Shrub Verbena, Yellow Sage
Lathyrus latifoliusWeakness, lethargy, pacing, head pressing, tremors, seizures, deathEverlasting Pea, Perennial Pea, Sweet Pea
Leucothoe davisiae, sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, cardiovascular collapse, hypersalivation, weakness, low blood pressure, coma, death. Ingestion of a few leaves is enough to cause serious problems.Black Laurel, Dog Hobble, Dog Laurel, Fetter Bush, Sierra Laurel
Ligustrum japonicum, vulgareGastrointestinal upset, incoordination, increased heart rate, death (rare)Amur, Common Privet, Privet, Wax-leaf
Lobelia cardinalisVomiting, diarrhea, depression, excessive salivation, abdominal pain, heart rhythm disturbanceCardinal Flower, Indian Pink, Lobelia
Lycopersicon spp.Diarrhea, hypersalivation, inappetence, severe gastrointestinal upset, drowsiness, CNS depression, confusion, behavioral change, weakness, dilated pupils, slow heart rateTomato Plant
Lyona sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, cardiovascular collapse, hypersalivation, weakness, low blood pressure, coma, death. Ingestion of a few leaves is enough to cause serious problems.Fetterbush, Maleberry, Staggerberry
Malus sylvestrisBrick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic.Apples and crabapples
Melia azedarachDiarrhea, vomiting, salivation, depression, weakness, seizures. Berries are the most toxic.Bead Tree, China Ball Tree, Chinaberry Tree, Japanese Bead Tree, Paradise Tree, Persian Lilac, Pride-of-India, Texas Umbrella Tree, White Cedar
Nandina domesticaWeakness, incoordination, seizures, respitory failure, coma, and death (rare).Heavenly Bamboo, Nandina, Sacred Bamboo
Narcissus spp.Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, convulsions, low blood pressure, tremors, cardiac arrythmia. Bulbs are the most toxic.Daffodil, Jonquil, Narcissus, Paperwhite
Nerium oleanderDiarrhea (possibly bloody), colic, sweating, incoordination, shallow/difficult breathing, muscle tremors, recumbency, and possible death from cardiac arrest. All parts highly toxic.Oleander, Rose-Bay
Nicotiana glaucaVomiting, hyperexcitability followed by depression, incoordination, paralysis, possibly deathFlowering Tobacco, Mustard Tree, Nicotiana, Tobacco, Tree Tobacco
Oxalis spp.Colic, possible kidney failure if large quantities are ingested.Good Luck Plant, Shamrock, Sorrel
Oxytropis sp.Once eaten, the animal becomes “addicted” to the plant. Loss of sensory and motor nerve function, central nervous system depression, progressive loss of coordination, inability to eat and drink, excessive excitability when stimulated, fetal death, and birth defects. Toxicity occurs when the animal has consumed more than 30% of its body weight over a period of 6 weeks or more.Loco Weed
Paeonia officinalisVomiting, diarrhea, depressionPeony
Persea americanaNoninfectious mastitis, gastric upset, colic. Also toxic to cattle, goats, rabbits and birds.Alligator Pear, Avocado
Petroselinum crispumPhotosensitization, Occular toxcicitySpring Parsley
Pinus ponderosaToxicity only reported in cattle : premature birth or miscarriageBlackjack Pine, Bull Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Western Yellow Pine, Yellow Pine
Phoradendron flavescensVomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure (rare), gastrointestinal disorders, erratic behavior, cardiovascular collapse, dyspnea (shortness of breath),cardiac arrhythmiaAmerican Mistletoe
Podocarpus macrophyllaSevere vomiting and diarrheaBuddhist Pine, Japanese Yew, Podocarpus, Southern Yew, Yew Pine
Podophyllum peltatumVomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, panting, coma (rare), dermal redness, skin ulcersAmerican Mandrake, Duck’s Foot, Hog Apple, Indian Apple Root, Mayapple, Racoonberry, Umbrella Leaf, Wild Lemon
Polyscias guilfoyleiVomiting, anorexia, depression, contact dermatitisAralia guilfoylei, Coffee Tree, Geranium-Leaf Aralia, Wild Coffee Tree
Portulaca oleraceaTremors, salivation, kidney failureMoss Rose, Pigwee, Purslane, Pusley, Portulaca, Rock Moss
Primula vulgarisMild vomitingPrimrose
Prunus armeniacaBrick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic.Apricot
Prunus aviumBrick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic.Sweet Cherry
Prunus cerasusBrick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic.Sour Cherry
Prunus domesticaBrick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic.Damson, Gage, Italian Plum, Prune
Prunus persicaBrick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic.Peach
Prunus salicinaBrick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic.Japanese Plum
Pteridium aquilinumThiamine deficiency, weight loss, incoordination, excessive staggering, wide stance with an arched back, severe muscle tremors, inability to stand, death within 2 days of onset of symptoms. Poisoning occurs with chronic ingestion over 1-2 month period.Adelaarsvaring, Brake, Brake Fern, Bracken Fern, Eagle Fern, Hog-Pasture Bracken, Pasture Bracken, Umbewe, Umhlashoshana
Quercus sp.Abdominal pain, constipation which can be followed by (occasionally bloody) diarrhea, depression, frequent urination, discoloured urination, jaundiceOak (all varieties)
Ranunculus acrisVomiting, diarrhea, depression, anorexia, hypersalivation, wobbly gaitBurwort, Buttercup, Butter Cress, Crowfoot Burwort, Figwort
Ranunculus sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, anorexia, hypersalivation, wobbly gaitButtercup, Butter Cress, Figwort,
Raphanus raphanistrumDigestive tract irritationWild Raddish
Rheum rhabarbariumSalivation, tremors, kidney failurePie Plant, Rhubarb
Rhododendron spp.Vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, weakness, coma, hypotension, CNS depression, cardiovascular collapse, death. Ingestion of a few leaves is enough to cause serious problems.Azalea, Rhododendron, Rosebay
Ricinus communisHighly toxic – ingestion of less than an ounce can be lethal. Loss of appetite, excessive thirst, weakness, colic, trembling, sweating, loss of coordination, difficulty breathing, fever, bloody diarrhea, convulstions, coma. Seeds contain the most toxins.African Wonder Tree, Castor Bean, Mole Bean Plant
Robinia sp.Loss of appetite, depression, stupor, weakness with rear end paralysis, laminitis, coldness of the extremities, dilated pupils, difficulty breathing, weak irregular pulse, and diarrhea (may be bloody). Stems, bark, and young shoots are the most toxic.Locust
Rumex sp.Tremors, salivation, kidney failureDock, Sorrel
Senecio sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, ataxia, weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days.Golden Ragwort, Grounsel, Ragwort
Solanum dulcamaraVomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, low blood pressure, low heart rateBlue Blindweed, Blue Nightshade, Climbing Nightshade, Deadly Nightshade, Devil’s Apple, European Bittersweet, Felonwort, Poisonous Nightshade, Scarlet Berry, Soda Apple, Violet Bloom, Woody Nightshade
Solanum nigrumHypersalivation, innapetence, severe gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea, drowsiness, CNS depression, confusion, behavioral change, weakness, dilated pupils, slow heart rateBlack Nightshade, Deadly Nightshade, Nightshade
Solanum pseudocapsiumGastrointestinal disturbances, possible ulcuration of the gastrointestinal system, depression, seizures, respitory depression, shockJerusalem Cherry, Natal Cherry, Ornamental Pepper, Winter Cherry
Sorhum vulgare var. sudanensisLoss of nerve function to hind legs and bladder progressing to complete paralysis. Poisoning usually occurs during periods of heavy rain when the young shoots are growing rapidly.Hybrid Sudan, Sudan Grass
Sphenosciadium capitellatumPhotosensitization, Occular toxcicityRanger’s Button, White Heads
Strelitzia reginaeNausea, vomiting, drowsiness. Fruit and seed most toxic.Bird of Paradise Flower, Bird’s Tongue Flower, Crane Flower
Symplocarpus foetidusOral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowingMeadow Cabbage, Polecat Weed, Skunk Cabbage, Skunk Weed, Swamp Cabbage
Tulipa sp.Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, and hypersalivation. Bulbs are the most toxic.Tulip
Taxus baccata, brevifolia, sp.Tremors, difficulty breathing, vomiting, sudden death from acute heart failure. Berries the most toxic.Anglo-Japanse Yew, English Yew, Japanese Yew, Pacific Yew, Western Yew
Taxus canidensusTremors, difficulty breathing, vomiting, sudden death from acute heart failure. Berries the most toxic.American Yew
Thevetia peruvianaVomiting, diarrhea, slow heart rateYellow Oleander
Thlaspi arvensDigestive tract irritationField Pennycress
Trifolium hybridumPhotosensitivity reaction: sunburn on nonpigmented skin. Affected areas become painful and form ulcerations, and inflammation/ulceration of the mouth and tongue may also occur along with colic and diarrhea, depression or excitation.  Recurring bouts of animals developping a yellowish discoloration of membranes around the mouth, eyes and nonpigmented areas of skin, accompanied by weight loss, central nervous system depression, loss of appetite, incoordination, dark, discolored urine and a greatly enlarged, fibrotic liverAlsike Clover
Wisteria sp.Vomiting (sometimes bloody), diarrhea, depressionWisteria
Zamia furfuraceaeVomiting, melena, icterus, increased thirst, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, bruising, coagulopathy, liver damage, liver failure, deathCardboard Palm, Cycads, Zamias
Zamia pumilaVomiting, melena, icterus, increased thirst, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, bruising, coagulopathy, liver damage, liver failure, deathCardboard Palm, Coontie Palm, Cycads, Sago Palm, Zamias
Yucca spLiver disease, secondary photosensitivityAdam’s Needle, Yucca
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