Plants toxic to horses

Botanical name Symptoms Common name
Abrus precatorius Severe vomiting and diarrhea (sometimes bloody), tremors, high heart rate, fever, shock, and death. Seeds are highly toxic. Buddhist Rosary Bead, Indian Bead, Indian Licorice, Love Bean, Lucky Bean, Prayer Bean, Precatory Bean, Rosary Pea, Seminole Bead, Weather Plant
Achillea millefolium Vomiting, diarrhea, increased urination, dermatitis Dog Daisy, Dog Fennel, Milfoil, Yarrow
Acer rubrum Red blood cell damage, darkened membrane around eyes and mouth, weakness, anorexia, central nervous system depression, abdominal discomfort, laminitis, discoloured urine, pregnancy abortion. Death can occur within 18 hours to 7-10 days of poisoning. Wilted leaves are the most toxic. Acer sanguineum, Carolina Maple, Curled Maple, Red Maple, Rufacer Maple, Scarlet Maple, Soft Maple, Swamp Maple
Adenium obesum Vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, irregular hearthbeat, death Desert Azalea, Desert Rose, Impala Lily, Kudu Lily, Mock Azalea, Sabi Star
Aesculus spp. Severe vomiting and diarrhea, depression or excitement, dilated pupils, convulstions, incoordination, coma Buckeye, Horse Chestnut
Aglaonema modestrum Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing Chinese Evergreen
Allium ampeloprasum Vomiting, anemia, weakness, blood in urine, high heart rate, panting Leek
Allium cepa Vomiting, anemia, weakness, blood in urine, high heart rate, panting Onion
Allium sativum Vomiting, anemia, weakness, blood in urine, high heart rate, panting Garlic
Alocassia spp. Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing Elephant’s Ear
Ammi majus Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing Bishop’s Weed, False Queen Anne’s Lace, Greater Ammi
Amsinckia sp. Weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days. Fiddleneck
Anthemis cotula Contact dermititis, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia. Long term exposure can lead to bleeding tendencies. Mayweed, Poison Daisy, Stinking Chamomile
Anthemis nobilis Contact dermititis, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia. Long term exposure can lead to bleeding tendencies. Barnyard daisy, Chamomile, Corn Feverfew, Garden Chamomile, Ground-Apple, Manzanilla, Roman Chamomile, True Chamomile, Turkey-weed
Apocynum androsaemifolium Diarrhea (sometimes bloody), slow heart rate, weakness. Bitter Root, Dogbane Hemp, Indian Hemp
Aralia spinosa Skin irritation, oral irritation, hypersalivation, vomiting, diarrhea Angelica Tree, Devil’s Walking Stick, Hercules’ Club, Prickly Ash, Prickly Elder
Arisaema triphyllum Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing Bog Onion, Brown Dragon, Devil’s Dear, Dragon Root, Jack-in-the-pulpit, Memory Root, Pepper Turnip, Starch Root, Three-leaved Indian Turnip, Wild Turnip
Arum maculatum Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing Adam-and-Eve, Arum, Bobbins, Cuckoo Plant, Lord-and-Ladies, Starch Root, Wake Robin
Arum palestinum Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing Black Calla, Soloman’s Lily, Wild Arum, Wild Calla
Asclepsia sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, weakness, profound depression, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, weak rapid pulse, seizures, kidney or liver failure, respitory paralysis, coma, death Butterfly Weed, Milkweed
Astragalus sp. Once eaten, the animal becomes “addicted” to the plant. Loss of sensory and motor nerve function, central nervous system depression, progressive loss of coordination, inability to eat and drink, excessive excitability when stimulated, fetal death, and birth defects. Toxicity occurs when the animal has consumed more than 30% of its body weight over a period of 6 weeks or more. Loco Weed
Barbarea orthoceras Digestive tract irritation Wintercress
Barbarea vulgaris Digestive tract irritation Yellowrocket
Berteroa incana Bloody diarrhea, fever, swollen limbs, colic, dehydration, laminitis, premature birth, loss of appetite, and death, Death is usually associated with the consumption of hay containing 30 – 70% of this plant. Hoary Alyssum
Brassica kaber, sp. Digestive tract irritation California Rape, Charlock, Indian Mustard, Wild Mustard
Brunfelsia sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, seizures, hypersalivation, lethargy, incoordination, coughing Brunfelsia, Fransiscan Rain Tree, Kiss-Me-Quick, Lady-of-the-Night, Paraguayan Jasmine, Yesterday-Today-Tomorrow
Buxus sp. Colic, diarrhea, respitory failure, seizures Boxwood
Cannabis sativa Vomiting, prolonged depression, incoordination, hypersalivation, sleepyness or excitation, dilated pupils, low blood pressure, low body temperature, seizures, coma, and death (rare). Hashish, Indian Hemp, Marijuana
Catharanthus roseus Vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, depression, tremors, seizures, coma, death Cape Periwinkle, Madagascar Periwinkle, Periwinkle, Rose Periwinkle, Running Myrthle, Vinca, Vinca rosea
Celastrus scandens Weakness, convulsions, vomiting, diarrhea American Bittersweet, Climbing Bittersweet, False Bittersweet, Shrubby Bittersweet, Waxwork
Centaurea repens Difficulty swallowing, grinning appearance, head tossing, yawning, open mouth with hanging and lolling tongue, central nervous system depression, loss of interest in food, difficulty breathing (due to food inhalation), submerging head in water (attempting to drink), dehydration, malnutrition. 50 – 200% of the animal’s body weight must be consumed within 60 – 90 days for poisoning. Russian Knapweed
Centaurea solstitialis Difficulty swallowing, grinning appearance, head tossing, yawning, open mouth with hanging and lolling tongue, central nervous system depression, loss of interest in food, difficulty breathing (due to food inhalation), submerging head in water (attempting to drink), dehydration, malnutrition. 50 – 200% of the animal’s body weight must be consumed within 60 – 90 days for poisoning. Barnaby’s Thistle, Yellow Star Thistle
Chenopodium botrys Vomiting, anorexia, depression Ambrosia mexicana, Feather Geranium, Jerusalem Oak
Chrysanthemum sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, incoordination, dermatitis Chrysanthemum, Daisy, Mum
Cicuta maculata, sp. Diarrhea, seizures, tremors, extreme abdominal pain, dilated pupils, fever, bloating, respiratory depression, death Cowbane, Poison Parsnip, Water Hemlock
Citrus aurantifolia Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity. Lime
Citrus aurantium Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity. Bergamot, Bergamot Orange, Citrus bergamia
Citrus limonia Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity. Lemon
Citrus mitis Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity. Calamondin Orange
Citrus paradisii Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity. Grapefruit
Citrus sinensis Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, potential photosensitivity. Orange
Clematis sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation Clematis, Leatherflower, Virgin’s Bower
Clivia minata, sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, convulstions, low blood pressure, tremors, cardiac arrhythmia. Bulbs are the most poisonous. Caffre Lily, Caple Clivia, Clivia Lily, Clivia nobilis, Clivies, Kaffir Lily, Klivia
Colchicum autumnale Oral irritation, bloody vomiting, diarrhea, shock, multi-organ damage, bone marrow suppression Autumn Crocus, Meadow Saffron
Coleus ampoinicus Vomiting (sometimes with blood), diarrhea (sometimes with blood), depression, anorexia Bread and Butter Plant, Coleus, East Indian Thyme, Indian Borage, Maratha, Militini, Spanish Thyme
Conium maculatum Central nervous system excitation, muscle tremors, incoordination, excessive salivation, frequent bowel movements and urination, abdominal pains, increased respitory rate, weakness progressing to muscular paralysis, and possible death due to respitory paralysis. Toxicity varies based on plant maturity and environmental conditions; Dry plant material non-toxic. California Fern, Deadly Hemlock, Nebraska Fern, Poison Hemlock, Poison Parsley, Spotted Hemlock, Winter Fern
Convallaria majalis Vomiting, irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, disorientation, seizures, coma Lily of the Valley
Crotalaria albida Weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days. Rattlebox
Cycas revoluta, sp. Vomiting (sometimes with blood), bloody diarrhea, dark stools, jaundice, increased thirst, bruising, liver failure, and death. Seeds are the most toxic. Consumption of 1-2 seeds is enough to cause death. Cycads, Fern Palm, Sago Palm
Cynoglossum amabile Weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days. Hound’s Tongue
Delphinium sp. Constipation, colic, salivation, muscle tremors, stiffness, weakness, recumbency, convulsions, and possible death from cardiac failure and/or respitory paralysis. Horses don’t usually consume enough of the plant for poisoning. Delphinium, Larkspur
Digitalis purpurea Vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac failure, death Foxglove
Echium plantagineum, vulgare Weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days. Patterson’s Curse, Viper’s Bugloss
Eichhornia crassipes Vomiting, anorexia Water Hyacinth
Equisetum arvense Weight loss, central nervous system disorders, muscle weakness, convulsions, and death. Toxic component accumulates with ingestion over a few days or weeks and breaks down thiamine, an essential nutrient for central nervous system function as well as metabolism function. Common Horsetail, Field Horsetail, Scouring Rush, Western Horsetail
Erigeron speciosus Mild vomiting, diarrhea Fleabane, Horseweed, Seaside Daisy, Showy Daisy
Eucalyptus spp. Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, depression, weakness Eucalyptus
Euonymus atropurpurea Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weakness. Large doses can cause heart rhythm abnormalities. Burning Bush, Euonymus occidentalis, European Spindle Tree, Spindle Tree, Wahoo
Eupatorium rugosum Incoordination, muscle weakness, tremors, elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, fluid accumulation, nervous system swelling, profuse sweating, and an inability to swallow. Consumption of 1 to 10% of body weight is enough to cause lethal clinical effect Fall Poison, Richweed, Tremetol, White Snakeroot
Fagopyrum spp. Photosensitization developing into dermal inflamation and ulcers Buckwheat
Ficus benjamina Oral irritation, vomiting, salivation, contact dermatitis Fig, Indian Rubber Plant, Weeping Fig
Gardenia jasminoides Mild vomiting, mild diarrhea, hives Cape Jasmine, Gardenia
Gladiolus sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, and lethargy. Bulbs (corms) are the most toxic. Gladiola
Haplopappus heterophyllus Incoordination, muscle weakness, tremors, elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, fluid accumulation, nervous system swelling, profuse sweating, and an inability to swallow. Consumption of 1 to 10% of body weight is enough to cause lethal clinical effects. Burrow Weed, Jimmy Weed, Rayless Goldenrod
Hedera helix Vomiting, abdominal pain, hypersalivation, and diarrhea. Foliage is more toxic than berries. Branching Ivy, California Ivy, English Ivy, Glacier Ivy, Needlepoint Ivy, Sweetheart Ivy
Helleborus niger Drooling, abdominal pain, diarrhea, colic, depression Christmas Rose, Easter Rose, Lenten Rose, Hellebore
Heliotropium sp. Weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days. Heliotrope
Hemerocallis spp. Not toxic to horses. Cows : incoordination, paresis (partial paralysis), blindness, death. Daylily
Heracleum maximum Photosensitization developing into dermal inflamation and ulcers, ocular toxicity Cow Parsnip, Giant Hogweed
Hibiscus syriacus Vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, anorexia Hibiscus Shrub, Rose of China, Rose of Sharon
Hosta sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, depression Funkia, Hosta, Plantain Lily
Hydrangea arborescens Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, cyanide intoxication (rare) Hills of Snow, Hortensia, Hydrangea, Seven Bark
Hypericum perforatum Chemical sunburn on light and unpigmented skin, dermatitis, itching, skin ulcers Goatweed, Klamath Weed, St-John’s Wort
Hypochaeris radicata Stringhalt (exaggerated flexion in back legs, hopping gait) Catsear, Cat’s Ear, False Dandelion, Flatweed
Ilex aquifolium Vomiting, diarrhea, depression. Stems are the most toxic. English Holly, European Holly, Inkberry, Oregon Holly, Winterberry
Ilex opaca Vomiting, diarrhea, depression. Stems are the most toxic. American Holly, European Holly, Inkberry, Oregon Holly, Winterberry
Ipomea batatas Diarrhea, and hallucinations. Mold damaged plants may cause respitory distress in livestock. Sweet Potato Vine
Juglans nigra Mild to moderate depression, anorexia, fluid build up in legs, laminitis, increased heart and respitory rate, increased body temperature, mild colic. Poisoning usually occurs when it is present in bedding (as little as 5%). Ingestion of nuts and shells can also occur, causing digestive upset. Black Walnut
Kalmia augustifolia Acute digestive upset, excessive drooling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, colic, depression, weakness, loss of coordination, stupor, leg paralysis, weak heart rate, and recumbancy (leaning). Interferes with normal muscle and nerve functions. Animal may recover or may become comatose and die. Also toxic to sheep and goats. Lambkill, Sheep Laurel
Kalmia latifolia Acute digestive upset, excessive drooling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, colic, depression, weakness, loss of coordination, stupor, leg paralysis, weak heart rate, and recumbancy (leaning). Interferes with normal muscle and nerve functions. Animal may recover or may become comatose and die. Also toxic to sheep and goats. Mountain Laurel
Kalmia poliifolia Acute digestive upset, excessive drooling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, colic, depression, weakness, loss of coordination, stupor, leg paralysis, weak heart rate, and recumbancy (leaning). Interferes with normal muscle and nerve functions. Animal may recover or may become comatose and die. Also toxic to sheep and goats. Bog Kalmia, Bog Laurel, Pale Laurel
Lantana camara Toxic to livestock. Vomiting, diarrhea, labored breathing, weakness, liver failure Lantana, Red Sage, Shrub Verbena, Yellow Sage
Lathyrus latifolius Weakness, lethargy, pacing, head pressing, tremors, seizures, death Everlasting Pea, Perennial Pea, Sweet Pea
Leucothoe davisiae, sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, cardiovascular collapse, hypersalivation, weakness, low blood pressure, coma, death. Ingestion of a few leaves is enough to cause serious problems. Black Laurel, Dog Hobble, Dog Laurel, Fetter Bush, Sierra Laurel
Ligustrum japonicum, vulgare Gastrointestinal upset, incoordination, increased heart rate, death (rare) Amur, Common Privet, Privet, Wax-leaf
Lobelia cardinalis Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, excessive salivation, abdominal pain, heart rhythm disturbance Cardinal Flower, Indian Pink, Lobelia
Lycopersicon spp. Diarrhea, hypersalivation, inappetence, severe gastrointestinal upset, drowsiness, CNS depression, confusion, behavioral change, weakness, dilated pupils, slow heart rate Tomato Plant
Lyona sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, cardiovascular collapse, hypersalivation, weakness, low blood pressure, coma, death. Ingestion of a few leaves is enough to cause serious problems. Fetterbush, Maleberry, Staggerberry
Malus sylvestris Brick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic. Apples and crabapples
Melia azedarach Diarrhea, vomiting, salivation, depression, weakness, seizures. Berries are the most toxic. Bead Tree, China Ball Tree, Chinaberry Tree, Japanese Bead Tree, Paradise Tree, Persian Lilac, Pride-of-India, Texas Umbrella Tree, White Cedar
Nandina domestica Weakness, incoordination, seizures, respitory failure, coma, and death (rare). Heavenly Bamboo, Nandina, Sacred Bamboo
Narcissus spp. Vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, convulsions, low blood pressure, tremors, cardiac arrythmia. Bulbs are the most toxic. Daffodil, Jonquil, Narcissus, Paperwhite
Nerium oleander Diarrhea (possibly bloody), colic, sweating, incoordination, shallow/difficult breathing, muscle tremors, recumbency, and possible death from cardiac arrest. All parts highly toxic. Oleander, Rose-Bay
Nicotiana glauca Vomiting, hyperexcitability followed by depression, incoordination, paralysis, possibly death Flowering Tobacco, Mustard Tree, Nicotiana, Tobacco, Tree Tobacco
Oxalis spp. Colic, possible kidney failure if large quantities are ingested. Good Luck Plant, Shamrock, Sorrel
Oxytropis sp. Once eaten, the animal becomes “addicted” to the plant. Loss of sensory and motor nerve function, central nervous system depression, progressive loss of coordination, inability to eat and drink, excessive excitability when stimulated, fetal death, and birth defects. Toxicity occurs when the animal has consumed more than 30% of its body weight over a period of 6 weeks or more. Loco Weed
Paeonia officinalis Vomiting, diarrhea, depression Peony
Persea americana Noninfectious mastitis, gastric upset, colic. Also toxic to cattle, goats, rabbits and birds. Alligator Pear, Avocado
Petroselinum crispum Photosensitization, Occular toxcicity Spring Parsley
Pinus ponderosa Toxicity only reported in cattle : premature birth or miscarriage Blackjack Pine, Bull Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Western Yellow Pine, Yellow Pine
Phoradendron flavescens Vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure (rare), gastrointestinal disorders, erratic behavior, cardiovascular collapse, dyspnea (shortness of breath),cardiac arrhythmia American Mistletoe
Podocarpus macrophylla Severe vomiting and diarrhea Buddhist Pine, Japanese Yew, Podocarpus, Southern Yew, Yew Pine
Podophyllum peltatum Vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, panting, coma (rare), dermal redness, skin ulcers American Mandrake, Duck’s Foot, Hog Apple, Indian Apple Root, Mayapple, Racoonberry, Umbrella Leaf, Wild Lemon
Polyscias guilfoylei Vomiting, anorexia, depression, contact dermatitis Aralia guilfoylei, Coffee Tree, Geranium-Leaf Aralia, Wild Coffee Tree
Portulaca oleracea Tremors, salivation, kidney failure Moss Rose, Pigwee, Purslane, Pusley, Portulaca, Rock Moss
Primula vulgaris Mild vomiting Primrose
Prunus armeniaca Brick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic. Apricot
Prunus avium Brick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic. Sweet Cherry
Prunus cerasus Brick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic. Sour Cherry
Prunus domestica Brick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic. Damson, Gage, Italian Plum, Prune
Prunus persica Brick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic. Peach
Prunus salicina Brick red mucous membrane, panting, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, shock. Stems and leaves particularly dangerous when wilting. The seeds are also toxic. Japanese Plum
Pteridium aquilinum Thiamine deficiency, weight loss, incoordination, excessive staggering, wide stance with an arched back, severe muscle tremors, inability to stand, death within 2 days of onset of symptoms. Poisoning occurs with chronic ingestion over 1-2 month period. Adelaarsvaring, Brake, Brake Fern, Bracken Fern, Eagle Fern, Hog-Pasture Bracken, Pasture Bracken, Umbewe, Umhlashoshana
Quercus sp. Abdominal pain, constipation which can be followed by (occasionally bloody) diarrhea, depression, frequent urination, discoloured urination, jaundice Oak (all varieties)
Ranunculus acris Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, anorexia, hypersalivation, wobbly gait Burwort, Buttercup, Butter Cress, Crowfoot Burwort, Figwort
Ranunculus sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, anorexia, hypersalivation, wobbly gait Buttercup, Butter Cress, Figwort,
Raphanus raphanistrum Digestive tract irritation Wild Raddish
Rheum rhabarbarium Salivation, tremors, kidney failure Pie Plant, Rhubarb
Rhododendron spp. Vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, weakness, coma, hypotension, CNS depression, cardiovascular collapse, death. Ingestion of a few leaves is enough to cause serious problems. Azalea, Rhododendron, Rosebay
Ricinus communis Highly toxic – ingestion of less than an ounce can be lethal. Loss of appetite, excessive thirst, weakness, colic, trembling, sweating, loss of coordination, difficulty breathing, fever, bloody diarrhea, convulstions, coma. Seeds contain the most toxins. African Wonder Tree, Castor Bean, Mole Bean Plant
Robinia sp. Loss of appetite, depression, stupor, weakness with rear end paralysis, laminitis, coldness of the extremities, dilated pupils, difficulty breathing, weak irregular pulse, and diarrhea (may be bloody). Stems, bark, and young shoots are the most toxic. Locust
Rumex sp. Tremors, salivation, kidney failure Dock, Sorrel
Senecio sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, ataxia, weight loss, weakness, sleepiness, yawning, incoordination, yellowish discolouration to mucous membranes, aimless walking, chewing motions, head pressing,  liver damage, and liver failure.  Symptoms can progress rapidly over a few days. Golden Ragwort, Grounsel, Ragwort
Solanum dulcamara Vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, low blood pressure, low heart rate Blue Blindweed, Blue Nightshade, Climbing Nightshade, Deadly Nightshade, Devil’s Apple, European Bittersweet, Felonwort, Poisonous Nightshade, Scarlet Berry, Soda Apple, Violet Bloom, Woody Nightshade
Solanum nigrum Hypersalivation, innapetence, severe gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea, drowsiness, CNS depression, confusion, behavioral change, weakness, dilated pupils, slow heart rate Black Nightshade, Deadly Nightshade, Nightshade
Solanum pseudocapsium Gastrointestinal disturbances, possible ulcuration of the gastrointestinal system, depression, seizures, respitory depression, shock Jerusalem Cherry, Natal Cherry, Ornamental Pepper, Winter Cherry
Sorhum vulgare var. sudanensis Loss of nerve function to hind legs and bladder progressing to complete paralysis. Poisoning usually occurs during periods of heavy rain when the young shoots are growing rapidly. Hybrid Sudan, Sudan Grass
Sphenosciadium capitellatum Photosensitization, Occular toxcicity Ranger’s Button, White Heads
Strelitzia reginae Nausea, vomiting, drowsiness. Fruit and seed most toxic. Bird of Paradise Flower, Bird’s Tongue Flower, Crane Flower
Symplocarpus foetidus Oral irritation, intense burning of the mouth, excessive drooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing Meadow Cabbage, Polecat Weed, Skunk Cabbage, Skunk Weed, Swamp Cabbage
Tulipa sp. Vomiting, diarrhea, depression, and hypersalivation. Bulbs are the most toxic. Tulip
Taxus baccata, brevifolia, sp. Tremors, difficulty breathing, vomiting, sudden death from acute heart failure. Berries the most toxic. Anglo-Japanse Yew, English Yew, Japanese Yew, Pacific Yew, Western Yew
Taxus canidensus Tremors, difficulty breathing, vomiting, sudden death from acute heart failure. Berries the most toxic. American Yew
Thevetia peruviana Vomiting, diarrhea, slow heart rate Yellow Oleander
Thlaspi arvens Digestive tract irritation Field Pennycress
Trifolium hybridum Photosensitivity reaction: sunburn on nonpigmented skin. Affected areas become painful and form ulcerations, and inflammation/ulceration of the mouth and tongue may also occur along with colic and diarrhea, depression or excitation.  Recurring bouts of animals developping a yellowish discoloration of membranes around the mouth, eyes and nonpigmented areas of skin, accompanied by weight loss, central nervous system depression, loss of appetite, incoordination, dark, discolored urine and a greatly enlarged, fibrotic liver Alsike Clover
Wisteria sp. Vomiting (sometimes bloody), diarrhea, depression Wisteria
Zamia furfuraceae Vomiting, melena, icterus, increased thirst, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, bruising, coagulopathy, liver damage, liver failure, death Cardboard Palm, Cycads, Zamias
Zamia pumila Vomiting, melena, icterus, increased thirst, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, bruising, coagulopathy, liver damage, liver failure, death Cardboard Palm, Coontie Palm, Cycads, Sago Palm, Zamias
Yucca sp Liver disease, secondary photosensitivity Adam’s Needle, Yucca
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